Innovative methods for the disposal of the hottest

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Innovative methods of packaging waste disposal

garbage has become one of the biggest problems in industrial society. In Germany, many towns don't know where to take their residents' garbage. Burning garbage will bring a series of problems, because some toxic gases and residual substances will be produced during the combustion process. However, with the passage of time, the stacking of garbage will also become a bomb poisoning the air or groundwater due to the uncontrolled mixing of various substances. In addition, many waste dumps have reached the limit of receiving capacity. Cities like Hamburg, Germany, have also had to issue a garbage emergency warning, because the garbage dump that used to receive the city's garbage now refuses to accept new garbage. The competent department can't wait to find a new garbage dump, and calls on residents to avoid garbage as much as possible

the Federal Ministry of environment, nature protection and nuclear reactor safety of Germany has also promulgated new laws. These laws will help reduce the burden caused by garbage. At present, scientific research is vigorously looking for new waste processing and treatment processes that are conducive to the environment. There is no doubt that residents will bear higher garbage disposal costs

in order to prevent the massive emergence of packaging waste and reduce the burden of waste dumps, a three-level packaging regulation has come into force. The first two regulations stipulate that customers can leave all unnecessary packaging in the store when shopping. The third level regulation stipulates that after consumption, consumers can press the speed selection key to select any gear, and conduct a tension test for the clamping test; After the sample is broken, it stops automatically. This function must meet more than 1% of the maximum nominal force of the gear selected for the actual experimental force of the sample, such as empty yogurt bottles, sandwich chocolate boxes, squashed empty toothpaste skins and plastic milk bags, which are sent back to shangpolycarbonate and the graphene utilization technology laboratory established by Harbin Institute of technology, and all these are loaded into the garbage container of the store. The labor cost of cleaning up garbage should be borne by businesses and stores, forcing the packaging department to give up most of the packaging. This will make businessmen, manufacturers and packaging industry a big headache

in fact, the loss of packaging business has long been predetermined. In order to avoid this situation and prevent the implementation of the third level of the packaging regulations, industry and commerce should give up the additional part of the packaging and only package the goods that are absolutely necessary, at least in principle

in addition, Germany has also set up a private garbage collection and transportation agency, which is responsible for collecting packaging waste and recycling most of the useful materials, which is the so-called dual track system. And the extra cost of this will eventually be borne by consumers

most cities in kemnitz district often groan under the burden of an unprecedented amount of household garbage, while the adjacent rohlitz county is calm about this problem. The reason is that the latter has implemented a very unique scheme. They also include nature in the process of garbage disposal. They have turned most of the garbage into humus. The county garbage dump is five hectares in size. Among the household garbage piled on the dump, the usable part is mainly garden waste and cabinet waste. These garbage are chopped and piled into a stack 30 meters long, 3 meters high and 3 meters high. The garbage rots and ferments in the stack, and the temperature is as high as 70 ℃. After months, the garbage turns into aromatic humus. To do this, we need the assistance of residents. They must divide their garbage into biological garbage and waste garbage, and then put them into garbage cans respectively. Because there is no need to adopt more expensive technology and the cost is small, ecological treatment is widely used. This method can greatly prolong the service life of the waste dump

waste disposal through incineration is a process that has not been fully studied. At present, great progress has been made in the understanding of the chemical composition and decomposition reaction of garbage. To this end, a waste incineration equipment has been put into operation. This equipment is mainly used to study the basic process of incinerating household waste and its related links, as well as the treatment of reaction products

the highest goal of this project is to make the waste incineration process harmless to the environment. In other words, hazardous substances and all material flows, including those in waste gas, waste water, and solid waste, should be controlled. With the passage of time, a series of transformation measures have been taken to achieve the best combustion process. For example, the flue gas shall be subject to multi-stage purification and the separation of dry dust, and the vortex dust collector and fabric dust filter shall be used. The latter wet flue gas treatment is carried out in two stages. The task of the first stage is to cool the flue gas to the limit temperature of about 60 ℃ by spraying water, and then remove the hydrogen chloride, mercury and remaining soot in the flue gas with a special scrubber. The concentration of acid can be adjusted automatically and kept stable. In the second stage, sulfur dioxide in flue gas is chemically combined by adding caustic soda solution to form sodium sulfate, which is then separated out. In addition, a high-power measurement technology has been developed to measure the chemical analysis of harmful gas components. Advanced measurement technology for gases, liquids and solids is a necessary prerequisite for evaluating the incineration process and ensuring the quality of flue gas purification

the disadvantage of plastics is that the products made of plastics have long been aged or consumed, and they can still be maintained for a long time. When burned, this kind of plastic products, which are used up and thrown away, will release toxic gases. Plastic products have plagued garbage dumps for decades, if not centuries. Because plastic hardly decomposes, or decomposes very slowly. In order to better solve these problems, a German family completed a pilot project. They introduced a kind of shampoo to the market, which is made of plastic bottle packaging made of polymeric materials, which can be biodegradable. The purpose of this experiment is to promote innovation and promote the use of biodegradable packaging. In order to test the degree to which the biopol bottle can decompose in the usual retting time, people bury the bottle in the compost pile, and then observe the residue of this material. After 15 weeks, people opened the compost pile and sifted it again. Each sieve was carefully searched. Among the 43 bottles with a total weight of 1688 grams, only 260 grams of bottles were found to fall. This is equivalent to 15.4%. There is also obvious microbial coverage and cavitary corrosion on the remaining residues. Therefore, it can be considered that these residues will also be decomposed into minerals soon. The new polymeric material PHB is produced by bioengineering. In the absence of nutrition, some glucose fed bacteria produce a storage substance produced by PHB. As a bacterial product, it almost fundamentally avoids the influence of zero drift and temperature drift of the traditional analog sensor on the measurement results. PHB is contained in ecological soil and activated purification sludge. PHB is made by bacteria, and it is also broken down by bacteria. Even those microorganisms that cannot make PHB materials by themselves can also break down and use polymers

reprinted from: Shanghai packaging

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